virtual learning articles – PraxiLabs https://blog.praxilabs.com A virtual world of science Wed, 30 Sep 2020 12:10:29 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.4.4 4 Technologies That Can Make Science Learning Easier and Funny https://blog.praxilabs.com/2020/09/06/4-technologies-science-learning/ Sun, 06 Sep 2020 16:37:47 +0000 https://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=582 Science learning or science education is the teaching of science to non-scientists, such as school children, college students, and also adults within the general public. 

The science learning field can include work in science content, science process (the scientific method), social and citizen science, and some teaching pedagogy.

In the last decades, science learning was based on traditional teaching methods. But through the last few years, we have noticed a significant change due to the revolution of the “information age.” 

Now we can see various applications for the internet and electronic devices in the world of science learning and teaching. Advances in computer and network technologies may facilitate and provide constructivist and cooperative learning environments, thus paving the way for cooperative activities and constructivist learning.

Now let’s take a look at the main emergent technologies that are applied in science learning. Here you can find four effective technologies that have a breakthrough in science learning.

Virtual labs, Simulations, and Dynamic Visualizations

Science Learning

Unlike computational thinking, the amount of research about using virtual labs and simulation in science learning is large. There are a large number of recent studies that discuss the efficiency of tools designed to simulate science labs, field trips, and scientific phenomena with relatively high fidelity.

These studies include varied simulations that varied in terms of functionalities (i.e., simulation of a phenomenon, and virtual lab), disciplines (chemistry, biology, and life sciences), and purpose for integration (i.e., assessment, teaching, or both). 

There are 14 papers that have been published in the Journal of Research in Science learning which is the top journal in the field. These papers include 2 studies on video games, 10 on integrated simulations, and 2 on interactive dynamic visualizations. 

The authors employed different types of simulations, games, and visualizations in these papers for assessment, learning, and problem-solving.They used different metrics to measure the effectiveness of the tools used in these studies, and an overall benefit was observed for conditions where these tools were employed. 

For example, Scalise et al. (2011) published a synthesis of 79 studies integrating science simulations (73) and virtual labs (24). 53% of these studies found observed learning gains as a result of use of simulations, 18% gains only under the right conditions, and 4% no gains reported.

Example for Virtual Labs

 

PraxiLabs is considered as one of the most interactive virtual labs. It aims to make scientific virtual labs easy to reach, easy to use, and affordable for educational institutions and schools. It not only provides scientific virtual labs but also integrates a rich content that helps students understand the steps of the experiment and provide them with additional information.

The structure of PraxiLabs consists of a team that is always keen to communicate with the educational institutions and science learning experts to learn the proposals for modernization and development and to ensure that the modern trends in the fields of laboratory experiments are kept up to date.

It helps students and teachers to enter a  3D virtual world, which helps students understand the curriculum more accurately and in detail. The labs are available in both English and Arabic and help students interact more with multiple interactive options and responsive responses, giving students experience and practical training in science curricula.

PraxiLabs is compatible with the educational platforms known and modern and can be accessed from anywhere. So your personal virtual lab goes with you wherever you go and it is one of the most important features of E-learning. In addition, it saves a lot of money spent on expensive equipment, as it dispenses with using chemicals in the laboratory, thus giving you a safer and less expensive alternative.

Computational Thinking

In education, computational thinking (CT) is a set of problem-solving methods that involve expressing problems and their solutions in ways that a computer could also execute. The amount of research about computational thinking in science learning is limited. So we will focus on three papers published in the Journal of Science Education and Technology, one of the best journals in the field of science learning and education.

Man with laptop thinking

According to Weintrop et al. (2016), computational thinking can be defined in the form of a taxonomy consisting of four main classes: 

1- data practices (collecting, creating, manipulating, analyzing, and visualizing data).

2- modeling and simulation practices (using computational models to understand a concept, find and test solutions, assessing, designing, and constructing computational models).

3- problem solving practices (preparing problems for computational solutions, programming, choosing effective computational tools, assessing different approaches/solutions to a problem, developing modular computational solutions, creating computational abstractions, troubleshooting, and debugging).

4- systems thinking practices (investigating a complex system as a whole, understanding the relationships within a system, thinking in levels, communicating information about a system, and defining systems and managing complexity). 

The author added some examples in order to illustrate these practices. For example he added a lesson that explains how students can investigate the laws of physics that govern video games. 

Berland and Wilensky (2015) compared the effectiveness of curricular units in supporting students’ complex systems and computational thinking in four urban middle school classrooms. The first unit was based on a physical robotics participatory simulation and the other unit had a virtual robotics participatory simulation. 

The results showed that the students outcomes have been improved using both units with the same amount. But there were some differences in their perspectives on the content. The students with the physical system were more likely to interpret situations from a bottom‐up perspective, and students using the virtual system were more likely to employ a top‐down perspective. 

The outcomes from this study suggest that the medium of students’ interactions with systems can lead to differences in their learning from and about those systems.

In another study, Leonard et al. (2016) tested the potential of using robotics and game design to engage youth in computational thinking. He tried to explain how the use of LEGO EV3 robotics and Scalable Game Design software influenced rural and indigenous students. 

He found that student attitudes toward and interest in STEM careers did not change significantly. Students were able to infuse some elements of culture and place into game design. Students’ self‐efficacy scores on the construct of computer use declined significantly, while the constructs of video gaming and computer gaming remained unchanged. Self‐efficacy in video gaming increased significantly in the combined robotics/gaming environment compared with the gaming‐only context.

Gaming and Technology‐Mediated Play

There are various studies that showed the growing number of science educators who use educational computer games. Simulations are the most popular type of games that are used in the educational process. For example C.‐Y. Hsu, Chin‐Chung Tsai, and Liang (2011) simulated the phenomenon of shadow formation in daylight using a computer game to teach a group of preschoolers. Also Anderson and Barnett (2013) taught the electrostatic phenomena to the middle‐school students using the 3D computer game Supercharged, which explains how charged particles interact with electric and magnetic fields. Using Code Fred: Survival Mode, Price et al. (2016) simulated the human body systems. 

Considerably less common in science learning is the use of educational games that do more than merely simulate natural processes. Also relatively uncommon is the use of video games for science learning at the elementary school level. This is a sharp contrast to middle‐ and high‐school, where science educators have more commonly favored the use of video games as a means to engage students in inquiry‐based science learning. To do so, these educators have typically resorted to “computer‐based narrative discovery learning games” in an online collaborative environment accessible to K‐12 students.

Technology of Online Science Learning

Online science courses are a virtual workplace that gives you advantages of time and place flexibility. As long as you meet your deadlines and communicate with your instructor and peers, it doesn’t matter where or when you fulfill the requirements.

That’s besides taking into consideration that online study requires just as much work as an offline study. And the amount of time you dedicate is also about the same. However, the online format—just as a virtual workplace—makes you afford more flexibility. Often, you are required to do the same tasks every week (e.g., review the learning objectives, complete the assigned readings, go through the lecture materials, participate in the discussion boards, and submit assignments).

Adjusting to an online learning model could be a challenge at first. But once you adapt to the format, there are numerous benefits to be realized. No matter the reason you choose to pursue online education, earning an online degree can help prepare you for career advancement and demonstrate key skills to potential employers.

Here you can find some features for online courses.

Flexibility 

Not many people have the ability to take time off from work to commit to a full-time graduate program, and others often travel for work. For those who still need to juggle working and going back to school, the flexibility of an online program provides individuals with the opportunity to learn while still working and growing professionally.

Additionally, students don’t always feel comfortable asking professors to repeat a point they made in their last lecture or dive into deeper detail on a specific topic. When learning online, you can revisit past material or stop the lecture to perform additional research or organize your notes.

ImproveTechnical Skills

Your online degree also equates to strong technical skills, a definite plus for any job seeker. As part of your coursework, you will likely need to utilize digital learning materials, get familiar with new tools and software, and troubleshoot common issues. After a program’s worth of technical hurdles, big and small, an employer could trust that you are versed in common collaboration tools, content management systems, and basic troubleshooting.

Time Management

Juggling work, family, and school isn’t an easy thing to do. Employers recognize this and admire the time management skills it takes to balance all three. Because there are no set classroom times within an online degree program and students have the flexibility to create their own schedules, it’s up to the student to proactively reach out to faculty, complete assignments on time, and plan ahead.

Self-Motivation

By successfully earning your master’s degree online, you’re demonstrating that you can practice time management and are self-motivated, which are among the top 10 employability skills employers want to see in new hires. By succeeding in earning an online degree, you prove that you can tackle multiple tasks, set priorities, and adapt to changing work conditions.  

Critical Thinking Skills

Online learning facilitates the ability to think critically about what you do every day. The goal in the classroom is to challenge you to think differently, and employers want you to do that, too–to think critically in your role at work. Mastering this skill is what will set you apart as a student and as an employee.

Critical thinking plays a role in any type of education; however, online learning forces you to develop your critical thinking skills in ways that you might not have practiced in an in-person classroom setting. This sort of self-paced and self-motivated learning demonstrates to future employers that you have the ability to think critically and overcome any obstacles that might stand in your way.

Broader, Global Perspective

Students in online programs come from all over the world. Because of the ability to log on from any location, class discussions feature a broader range of perspectives, helping you enhance your own cross-cultural understanding. Students then not only have the opportunity to network with people from around the globe but can also broaden their perspective and become more culturally aware.

Businesses are looking for employees who can innovate, and innovation often comes from outside your immediate world. If you’re interested in entrepreneurship, for example, hearing how other countries adopt certain technologies or approach specific industries can inspire new ideas or improve an existing concept you’ve been developing. 

Being exposed to new ideas from professionals in other countries may spark the creativity of your own—creativity that can turn out to be valuable for your organization.

Virtual Communication and Collaboration

Learning to work with others in a virtual environment can make you a more effective leader. You’ll develop critical leadership skills by utilizing specialized knowledge, creating efficient processes, and making decisions about best communication practices, such as what should be discussed in-person or electronically. 

In an online program, you’ll also participate in discussion boards with your classmates, communicate with professors via email, and collaborate through various software programs. As the program progresses, you’ll get better at pitching your ideas and making strong, succinct, professional arguments through text.

]]>
PCR Analysis: COVID-19 Infection Detection Method… PraxiLabs Initiative Experiments https://blog.praxilabs.com/2020/04/12/pcr-analysis-covid-19-infection-detection-method-praxilabs-initiative-experiments/ Sun, 12 Apr 2020 13:39:28 +0000 https://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=363 Recently, with the emergence of COVID-19 virus, we often hear the term “PCR analysis.” Polymerase Chain Reaction “PCR” is the basic analysis currently used to detect Infected people with COVID-19.

Through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR analysis), scientists can detect the presence of viruses that cause infection, even when they are present in small quantities in the body. This method contributes to the diagnosis of transmissible viral diseases, as well as to the identification of mutations in various genetic disorders.

PraxiLabs 3D virtual biology laboratory provides the PCR experiment within its initiative to support practical colleges, where you can conduct the experiment in the virtual biology lab, which provides science students and professors with a more accurate understanding of PCR meaning.

These experiments are completely free for a whole month for practical college professors and students. You can create your PraxiLabs account to conduct these experiments from here.

What is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?

Polymerase Chain Reaction is one of the important techniques used to amplify a portion of the DNA chain using very small amounts of materials, where the DNA chain can be multiplied more than a million times.

After the amplification process, a sample of the body fluids or one of its tissues is examined to study DNA, where the DNA contains the genetic code, which is the basis for the process of building body tissues and enzymes responsible for chemical processes, and it is a characteristic of each organism separately. This enables scientists to confirm the presence of strange creatures inside the human body, such as viruses, and determine what type that virus is.

PCR Analysis Experiment Objectives:

The PCR analysis experiment aims to amplify a targeted part of the DNA to a size that may reach up to 10,000 nucleotides, which will allow getting millions of copies of the targeted DNA strand in a short time. Thus, doctors can examine the DNA accurately and make sure that there are extraneous bodies, their type and the amounts of their presence in the patient’s body.

PCR Analysis Experiment Steps:

The experiment of the Polymerase Chain Reaction is divided into three main steps and begins from the preparation of the master mix, where in the first step you will prepare an amount of the master mix sufficient to 6 samples of DNA by adding the special reagents for the experiment in the master mix tube.

PCR Analysis

Then, the laboratory moves to the DNA extraction room, where you will add 49 μl of the master mix that you prepared in the previous step to 1 μl of each DNA sample.

Then you will move to the PCR device. At this stage, we will place the Eppendorf tubes in the thermal cycler and then adjust the device settings for three stages until the separation process is completed.

Other Applications of PCR Analysis:

Because of this great sensitivity, PCR has found popularity in a wide range of applications. Molecular biologists use PCR in gene cloning and DNA sequencing. Forensic scientists use PCR to connect blood, saliva, or tissue left at the scene of a crime to a suspect or victim. Clinical geneticists use PCR to determine whether or not potential parents might carry a genetic disease that could be passed along to their children. 

Thus, the PCR analysis experiment is one of the most important experiments that students of biology and medicine should understand, and therefore PraxiLabs provides it as part of its initiative to support practical colleges during the period of study interruption due to the current circumstances.

These experiments are completely free for a whole month for practical college professors and students. You can create your PraxiLabs account to conduct these experiments from here.

]]>
DNA Extraction Virtual Lab Experiment from PraxiLabs https://blog.praxilabs.com/2020/06/30/dna-extraction-virtual-lab/ Tue, 30 Jun 2020 21:55:10 +0000 https://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=492 The DNA extraction virtual lab is the most affordable method to simulate an equipped laboratory that offers a realistic lab experience for the DNA extraction process. 

DNA extraction virtual lab helps universities to provide their students with an immersive learning experience using the technology of virtual labs to improve the quality of science education.

But why do universities need to improve the quality of science education?

Actually, the world is growing incredibly fast, which increases the list of growing challenges that will need to be solved by the current and future students.

This is because those students will be the scientists of the future who will deal with the world’s great challenges including, but not limited to, global warming, solving starvation and water shortages, and of course curing diseases. 

DNA extraction scientist
Scientist

Curing diseases need biological experts with a great passion for science and enthusiastic about studying dangerous submicroscopic infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria. 

And they must be brilliant in conducting biological lab experiments such as DNA extraction. This is because DNA extraction is one of the essential experiments that must be done to define, classify, and study the infection agents.

DNA extraction virtual lab
scientist studying virus

So universities around the world must improve their science teaching quality. That can be done by providing a well-training, interactive, and interesting environment in the scientific lab equipped with cutting-edge equipment.

Probably, the provision of these factors for all students in the real lab will be a challenging task because of its high cost,  time and space constraints, number of students, and safety risks. But can the biology virtual lab provide the solution?

DNA extraction virtual lab provided by PraxiLabs as an example:

The realistic lab experience of the DNA extraction virtual lab will help the biological students to be ready to do their role after graduation.

They will become more proficient in lab procedures and tools, which leads to better performance and understanding of the DNA extraction process.

Also, it will help students become more engaged and motivated through high levels of interactivity in a game-like environment, which can not be provided in the real DNA extraction lab.

Through the DNA extraction virtual lab, students will be able to extract cellular DNA using the phenol-chloroform method, try out cutting edge lab equipment, and learn from their mistakes in a safe and affordable environment.

 
And in order to assess the students’ progress by themselves or by teachers, they will get access to the help of theory pages and quiz questions that is provided inside the DNA extraction virtual lab.

In addition to these features, DNA extraction virtual lab will give them a real-world understanding of the concepts and procedures of DNA extraction experiment without jeopardizing their safety.

So conducting experiments now can be done in a fun and risk-free learning environment using the virtual lab. That lets the students perform experiments and practice their skills in realistic lab experience.

In this article, we will take a quick look at an example for biology virtual labs which is the DNA extraction virtual lab from PraxiLabs.

But in the beginning, we need to know more about DNA by answering some questions.

What is the DNA? How did the scientists discover it? What is the structure of the DNA? Why is DNA extraction important? And how did science benefit from studying it?

And then you can start trying your DNA extraction virtual lab.

Introduction to DNA

What is DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all living organisms. It is the chemical name for a complex molecule that contains the genetic material of a cell that carries the information an organism needs to develop, live, and reproduce.

This information exists inside every individual cell and is transmitted across generations from parents to their children. 

DNA

Almost all cells in the human body have the same DNA. The nuclear DNA is the DNA that can be found inside the cell nucleus, and the mitochondrial DNA is the small amount of DNA that exists inside the mitochondria. Mitochondria is a semi autonomous double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. 

DNA Discovery

In 1953 American biologist James Watson and English physicist Francis Crick discovered DNA when they reached their groundbreaking conclusion: the DNA molecule exists in the form of a three-dimensional double helix.

But it is important to mention that there was previous work done first by Swiss chemist Friedrich Miescher, who identified the DNA. He could isolate the DNA for the first time in 1869 while working in the laboratory of the biochemist Felix Hoppe-Seyler.

He was participating in a project that aims to detect the chemical composition of cells. In the beginning, he started his work using lymphocytes drawn from lymph nodes but he couldn’t get acceptable quantities for analysis. So he decided to gather leucocytes, white blood cells from pus found on fresh surgical bandages collected from a nearby surgical clinic. 

In the course of his work on leucocytes, he noticed the precipitation of a new substance that he called ‘nuclein’ as it exists in the nuclei of the cell. 

After more analysis, Miescher discovered that the chemical composition of the nuclein is different from proteins and other known molecules. He guessed that it has a different and critical role within the cells. After that, Miescher found a way to isolate the new substance from salmon sperm.

 
Since Miescher’s time, there have been many developments made to the methods for extracting and isolating DNA. 

Then, within decades following Miescher’s work, Phoebus Levene and Erwin Chargaff carried out a series of research efforts that provided more details about primary chemical components of the DNA molecule and the ways in which they joined one another.

Consequently, Watson and Crick’s achievement was possible only with the scientific foundation provided by these pioneers.

In the 1950s, Watson and Crick started a fierce competition with many scientific teams to discover the form and structure of the DNA. Then they were joined by Wilkins, who was part of the Manhattan Project that produced the first nuclear bomb.

That made Wilkins feel guilty, as he was one of the makers of death. Therefore, he decided to participate in the making of life to atone for his sin. Therefore, he became a member in a project of discovering the form and structure of the DNA. 

DNA scientists

Wilkins introduced X-ray reflections that he used to photograph the genetic material to Francis Crick and James Watson after they began their studies on the DNA in 1953. Watsons quickly showed Crick these images. Thus, Crick was able to reach the form of the DNA that is currently adopted: a helical duplex.

Watson also discovered the chemical composition of DNA. Francis Crick, James Watson, and Morris Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1963.

Read our blog about The Top Greatest Scientists in History.

And from the 1950s until very recently the techniques of extracting DNA was very complex, labor-intensive, and time-consuming.

But now the methods are different and effective. And with the development of commercial kits and the automation of the process, the extraction of the DNA becomes much easier. 

What is DNA Structure?

DNA Molecule consists of two long polynucleotide Complementary Chains composed of four types of nucleotide sub-units.

These two chains are held together by the Hydrogen bonds between the base portions of the nucleotides, the chains wind around one another to form a shape known as a double helix.

DNA structure
DNA structure

Each one of these chains is known as a DNA chain or a DNA strand. The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).

The number of bases in Human DNA is about 3 billion bases, all people sharing the same 99% of those bases.

What determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism is the order, or sequence, of these bases, such as the words and sentences that built up from a certain order of letters of the alphabet.

DNA has an important property that it can replicate or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases.

This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.

DNA Extraction

Importance of DNA Extraction

We can define DNA extraction as “Isolation of DNA by breaking the cell membrane and nuclear membrane with the help of chemicals, enzymes or physical disruptions,” and it has been the target of a lot of research. 

The extraction of DNA is critical to biotechnology. It is the first step of different applications, varying from fundamental research to routine diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

The importance of DNA extraction and purification is that they are essential to defining the unique characteristics of DNA, such as its size, shape, and function.

Investigation of the DNA structure and sequence in relation to diseases helped in finding out the molecular basis and cure for various diseases.

DNA study also allowed the production of many vaccines, hormones, and enzymes. as well as it was also very beneficial in the forensic/medico legal entities.

To study DNA it must be extracted out of the cell, Hence; DNA extraction technique is widely used in research labs.

Phenol Chloroform Extraction Method

The DNA extraction experiment in PraxiLabs virtual biology lab is based on the phenol chloroform extraction methods. As it is a well known and widely accepted DNA extraction method for long. 

The three main chemicals that are used in extracting DNA are phenol, chloroform, and isoamyl alcohol.

The property of solubility is a very critical property that you can separate any biological molecule based on it, as every molecule has its own solubility in water or specific solution.

So, we can separate the DNA based on the DNA molecules solubility in immiscible solutions, and that is called the liquid-liquid DNA extraction methods. And the phenol chloroform DNA extraction method is one of these methods. 

 

What is The Principle of DNA Extraction?

As we mentioned before, the main idea of phenol chloroform DNA extraction method is built on the liquid-liquid extraction of biomolecules.

The solubility of the biomolecules is considered as the base of the entire mechanism. So it is used to denature and remove the protein portion of the cell.

Walkthrough the DNA extraction virtual lab from PraxiLabs.

Chemicals That are Used in The Separation Process

Sometimes the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method is called PCI or phenol-chloroform isoamyl alcohol method of DNA extraction. That is because this method is more effective along with isoamyl alcohol.

Phenol

Because the phenol is a non-polar solution, the DNA is insoluble in it. But protein has both polar and non-polar group present in it because of the long chain of different amino acids. Different amino acids have different groups present on their side chain. 

And adding phenol makes the protein unfolded, as the folding of the protein into the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures depends on the polarity of the amino acids.

Chloroform

We can conclude the role of chloroform in the following points:

1- The use of chloroform mixed with phenol is more efficient at denaturing proteins than either reagent alone.

2- Chloroform allows suitable separation of the organic phase and aqueous phase that keeps the DNA protected into the aqueous phase. 

Application of DNA Extraction

The extraction of DNA is very important to study genetics and diseases and to develop diagnostics and drugs. 

Also, it is a critical thing to carry out forensic science, sequencing genomes, detecting bacteria, and viruses in the environment and to determine paternity.

Genetic Engineering of Plants

DNA extraction is essential in the process of genetic modification of plants. There are a lot of agricultural companies that use genetic extraction to isolate DNA from organisms with desirable traits to transplant into the plant’s genome.

Altering Animals

The genetic engineering of animals is a very broad field that starts from editing a single gene to transplanting genes between animals. DNA extraction is also the first step in these processes.

Pharmaceutical Products

DNA extraction is an important and essential step to manufacture a number of pharmaceuticals. These pharmaceuticals include the Hepatitis B vaccine and human growth hormone (hGh) which are made via recombinant genetics. And there are some hormones created using DNA extraction; the most common between them is insulin.

Medical Diagnosis

There are some conditions that can be diagnosed by genetic testing such as sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, fragile x syndrome, hemophilia A, Down’s syndrome, Huntington’s disease, and Tay-Sachs disease. It also help geneticists to test 

Identity Verification

Genetic fingerprinting is one of the most important applications for DNA extraction, where we can match genetic material from an individual with other genetic materials available. Genetic material from an individual can be compared to genetic material at a crime scene, such as blood, for example. 

Try DNA Extraction Virtual Lab for Free

PraxiLabs provides the DNA extraction virtual lab for students, teachers, and researchers. Create your free account and enjoy conducting the DNA extraction experiment online.

You can access the DNA extraction virtual lab using the internet anywhere and anytime you want.

]]>
5 of The Greatest Scientists in History https://blog.praxilabs.com/2019/02/13/5-of-the-greatest-scientists-in-history/ Wed, 13 Feb 2019 11:10:32 +0000 http://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=187 In this article, we are going to mention some of the greatest scientists in history who had beneficial impact on human life and had provided various innovations and discoveries that lead to all the giant leaps in our history.

Throughout different ages, science and scientists have always played an active role in history. This role affected various sides of peoples’ lives: economically, socially, and nationally. With scientific power, nations will be able to lead global economy by owning developed industries, and will also be able to develop their military arsenal with the latest equipment, and thus provide a safe society.

There have also been many influential scientists in the history of mankind. This influence has always been a double-edged sword. For example, some of them contributed to the discovery of a medicine for some of the most catastrophic diseases, whereas other scientists symbolized disasters to humanity. 

Marie Curie

She was born in Warsaw in 1867 A.C., in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, a part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw’s clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with the physicist Henri Becquerel. She also won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

the greatest scientists in history

Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Moreover, she was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and, in 1995, Marie Curie became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.

Her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world’s first studies into the treatment of neoplasms were conducted using radioactive isotopes. During World War I, she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, and they both remain major centres of medical research today.  

 

Trio Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins

the greatest scientists in history

In the 1950s, there was a fierce competition between many scientific teams to discover the form and structure of the DNA. Watson and Crick formed one of those teams and were joined by Wilkins. It was worth mentioning that Wilkins was part of the Manhattan project that produced the first nuclear bomb. Wilkins felt guilty, as he was one of the makers of death. Therefore, he decided to atone for his sin by participating in the making of life, and so he took part in a project of discovering the form and structure of the DNA. Francis Crick and James Watson began their studies on the DNA in 1953, and Wilkins then introduced X-ray reflections by which he photographed genetic material to Watson. Watsons quickly showed Crick these images. Thus, Crick was able to reach the form of the DNA that is currently adopted: a helical duplex. Watson also discovered the chemical composition of DNA. Francis Crick, James Watson and Morris Wilkins won Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1963.

Nikola Tesla

Born in Croatia in 1856 A.C., and Nikola Tesla was the detector of the electric current. Tesla began his studies at the Polytechnic School. He then joined the University of Prague in the Czech Republic and specialized in electrical engineering where he began his career as an electrical engineer in the telephone company in Budapest. Then, he started to work in Edison company and moved to New York where he joined the great American scientist Thomas Edison. At the end, he founded his own laboratory in the same city.

]]>
All You Need to Know About Virtual Labs https://blog.praxilabs.com/2020/04/22/all-you-need-to-know-about-virtual-labs/ Wed, 22 Apr 2020 13:08:49 +0000 https://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=377 Virtual labs are considered one of the most important techniques of e-learning, as they enable both teachers and students to achieve the educational process’ goals. This is done by facilitating the application of the practical side of the curriculum at any time and place, and without any form of restrictions.

And technology applications in the field of education have varied widely during the past few years. And development rates have accelerated in the field of e-learning in response to the digital transformation that we are witnessing in various areas of life now.

Virtual labs have saved a lot of time and effort. Also they removed many obstacles that were faced by both student and teacher to conduct experiments. As they facilitated the conducting of experiments outside the real labs.

In this article, we will shine a light on the importance of virtual labs and how to benefit from them and their uses, as well as some of the negatives that may result from the use of virtual laboratories.

These experiments are completely free for a whole month for practical college professors and students. You can create your PraxiLabs account to conduct these experiments from here.

An introduction to virtual labs and how to use them in modern education:

Virtual labs are one of the technological innovations among the modern educational methods. In virtual labs, the computer is used to provide a 3D virtual environment for the science lab, enabling the student to coexist and interact and deal with it, so that the student feels as he/she coexists, interacts, and deals with a real science lab in all its dimensions.

Consequently, the student can use the Internet and computer in any place and time to perform experiments. Also, he will be able to access information in various materials and disciplines, which develops his skills and helps him to keep abreast of daily developments in the field of education.

Given the radical change in the educational techniques and methods around the world and the use of digital devices in a wide range within the educational system, it became necessary that educational institutions keep pace with this transformation and seek to obtain the greatest benefit from virtual labs to help students to compete in the labour market and research fields. 

It is clear to us that the digital age will make room only for those who can keep up with it, which enables them to adapt to its applications in all aspects of life.

The way to benefit from virtual labs in modern education is by linking the theoretical aspect in the lecture, to the practical aspect in the laboratory. And the best way to achieve the most benefit is to use them in teaching analytical thinking skills, in addition to using them in assessing student performance and achievement, which is significantly reflected in the improvement of the learning process.

24 Advantage of Virtual Labs:

1- Help solve the problem of limited resources and funding for experiments.

2- Protect students from the dangers they face while conducting some dangerous laboratory experiments. It eliminates the need to deal with toxic or radioactive chemicals and other hazards such as electrical connections, etc. Subsequently, it is an effective way to avoid laboratory accidents

3- Ability to display very accurate phenomena and results that may not be measurable using simple laboratory tools and that require complex and expensive equipment.

4- Help the teacher cover all aspects of the course curriculum with practical applications and help the student understand all the points of the course curriculum; which is difficult to provide in the case of limited equipment and funding.

5- Provide the synchronization between the process of explaining the theoretical ideas and practical application, just as real laboratory experiments are linked to theoretical lectures.

6- Help students and teachers study and prepare laboratory experiments at any time and place.

7- The student is able to conduct the same experiment several times according his/her ability to absorb the information. This is generally difficult to provide in a real laboratory in the case of limited material and and the lack of equipment in proportion to the numbers of students.

8- The student is given the opportunity to control the inputs of the experiment, change the different transactions, and observe the changes in the results without the existence of a supervisor and without being exposed to any risks.

9- Provide cooperation and interaction between the students and between the teachers and students.

10- The ability to record all the results electronically, which helps in analyzing them using the latest software programs and sharing the results and analysis with others.

المعامل الافتراضية

11- Help the teacher to evaluate students electronically and easily to guide them and follow their progress in conducting experiments.

12- Save time and effort for researchers by eliminating the need to move between different laboratories.

13- Provide a comprehensive overview for the learner about the hazardous experiments which are not safe in the real world, thus providing him/her with a greater absorption of the course.

14- Help educational institutions save money.

15- Add entertainment while conducting the experiment, which helps attract the students’ attention.

These experiments are completely free for a whole month for practical college professors and students. You can create your PraxiLabs account to conduct these experiments from here.

16 – Motivate students to conduct laboratory experiments.

17 – They satisfy the scientific passion of students, allowing them to access the various experiments easily regardless of time or place.

18 – Increase the understanding of scientific courses in physics, chemistry and biology; and Increase student achievement.

19 – Eliminate boredom, as it provides fun during the experiments.

20 – The virtual labs will increase the scientific research rates because it saves time and effort and enables researchers to use their time more effectively.

21 – The virtual labs will enable students to use modern technology and enable them to follow the tremendous progress of the information revolution.

22 – Students will be able to use the scientific method of problem-solving.

23 – Developing teaching and learning methods that will lead to the effectiveness of the educational process.

24 – Increased communication between students and each other on the Internet, which helps with the exchange of ideas and experiences.

3 Impediments to use virtual labs:

1- They require computer devices with high specifications in order to simulate the exact phenomena with full details and create a three-dimensional virtual lab.

2- They require professional programmers with strong skills in different programming languages. They also require a team of experts in the scientific material, teachers, and experts in psychology.

3- One of the negative effects of Virtual Labs is that it reduces the direct interaction between students and each other, and between students and teachers, given that the communication between them is electronically most of the time.

Virtual labs

Finally, the virtual labs are one of the most important applications of e-learning. As it provides a virtual learning and teaching environment that aims to develop practical skills of the students. And since they are available through the Internet, the student can conduct many experiments without being restricted to a specific location or specific times as It is the case when using real laboratories.

These experiments are completely free for a whole month for practical college professors and students. You can create your PraxiLabs account to conduct these experiments from here.

]]>
Distance Learning in Universities: An Initiative to Support Practical Colleges While Study Lockdown https://blog.praxilabs.com/2020/03/20/distance-learning-in-universities-an-initiative-to-support-practical-colleges-while-study-lockdown/ Fri, 20 Mar 2020 17:21:03 +0000 https://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=355 At present, educational institutions realized the importance of distance learning and its effectiveness in the continuation of the educational process during the spread of epidemics. 

With the spread of the new coronavirus all over the world, most of the countries are applying social distance theory. So, it became necessary to lock down educational institutions as they are one of the largest forms of social gatherings. 

In this situation, distance learning technologies have provided an opportunity for students and teachers to keep the educational process running regularly. Convinced of its social role, PraxiLabs has provided many of its scientific experiments for free.  

In this article, you will learn about the concept of distance learning, details of PraxiLabs initiative, and how professors and students in practical colleges can benefit from it, in addition to your registration link.

The article also contains details of the PCR experiment, which is one of the initiative’s experiments. The PCR is the analysis that is currently used to detect infected people with Covid-19.

Distance Learning:

Distance learning is defined as the use of modern technologies of communication, computers, the Internet, and various media such as audio, video, and video in educational process, which helps conduct lessons at any time and place.

Distance learning is defined as the use of modern technologies of communication, computers, the Internet, and various media such as audio, video, and video in educational process. Which helps conduct lessons at any time and place.

Distance learning can also be known as e-learning, open education, and distributed education. And there are other expressions, home study and independent study.

PraxiLabs initiative to support practical colleges during the Corona crisis:

Under the current circumstances and with the measures taken by many countriesincluding Egyptto confront the Corona epidemic, the study was temporarily suspended in educational institutions of various levels. 

Therefore, the PraxiLabs Foundation decided to launch an initiative to support practical colleges by providing 22 virtual 3D laboratory experiments for the most important biology, chemistry, and physics experiments online for free. And one of the most important experiments of these is the PCR.

These experiments are completely free for a whole month for practical college professors and students. You can create your PraxiLabs account to conduct these experiments from here.

PCR Experiment:

The Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the main analysis that is currently used to detect infected people with the COVID-19 epidemic. PraxiLabs provides the PCR experiment within the initiative laboratories, where you can learn how to conduct the experiment and apply its steps yourself using the 3D simulation provided by PraxiLabs.

The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a powerful technique used for the amplification of a specific segment of a nucleic acid. Starting with only a very small amount of material, a DNA segment can be multiplied by over a million-fold.

Because of this great sensitivity, PCR has found popularity in a wide range of applications. Molecular biologists use PCR in gene cloning and DNA sequencing. Forensic scientists use PCR to connect blood, saliva, or tissue left at the scene of a crime to a suspect or victim.

Clinical geneticists use PCR to determine whether or not potential parents might carry a genetic disease that could be passed along to their children.

]]>
Virtual Science Labs from PraxiLabs: The Most Important Achievements of 2019 https://blog.praxilabs.com/2020/01/12/virtual-science-labs-from-praxilabs-the-most-important-achievements-of-2019/ Sun, 12 Jan 2020 11:47:15 +0000 https://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=318 A new year for PraxiLabs has just begun for the leading company in the field of developing virtual science labs in the Middle East and North Africa. This year has been marked by many activities and achievements made by PraxiLabs and various competitions and awards that Praxilabs have won between local and international.

PraxiLabs also participated in a range of multiple activities in cooperation with various educational institutions, in addition to making significant improvements to its virtual labs to help users get the maximum benefit from them.

The Most Important Prizes that PraxiLabs Won during 2019:

1- First Place in the NextBillion EdTech Prize Competition in Dubai:

NextBillion is an open forum for the development through enterprise sector. Based at the William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan, the site is a community of business leaders, social entrepreneurs, NGO managers, policy makers, academics, and others exploring the connection between development and for-profit business.

PraxiLabs has risen to be among ten companies in the field of educational technology from Africa qualified for the Next Billion EdTech award. The final competition was held on the sidelines of the Global Education and Skills Forum (GESF) that took place in Dubai from 22 to 24 March 2019. 1500 representatives attended the event from different countries of the world to discuss possible solutions to the most important issues of education.

It is worth noting that the award has been dedicated since 2018 to support innovative ideas in education. There were 800 companies specialized in developing educational technologies from all over the world participating in this competition. After the first qualifying stage, only 30 companies had risen up the ranks. And during the semi-final qualifiers, only 6 companies managed to reach the final round. Then PraxiLabs managed to win the first place with Ubongo from Tanzania and Dost Education from India.

2- Winning the Techne Summit in Alexandria:

PraxiLabs had won the Techne Summit Competition Award, which had been held in Alexandria during the period from 28 to 30 September 2019. Techne Summit Competition is an international event that focuses on various fields, especially investment and entrepreneurship, where it aims to support the owners of startups in the Mediterranean region. 

This summit started in Alexandria, Egypt, in the beginning of 2015. And in 2018, more than 6 thousand people, 130 speakers, 230 startups, and 80 investors from about 25 countries attended the summit.

By winning this award, PraxiLabs has qualified for the next stage of the competition, which will be held in Silicon Valley, USA, in May 2020, and the winner will receive a million-dollar prize.

3- Winning the South Summit Competition in Madrid:

The South Summit is an annual conference that brings together influential cadres in the world of entrepreneurship and is attended by the largest emerging companies and the most important talents from southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and Latin America and the best investors, in addition to the largest companies that aim for innovation. This conference is annually held in Madrid, Spain.

PraxiLabs managed to win this year’s conference award, which was held between 2 and 4 October 2019, for its contribution to developing the way science is taught in universities, through the virtual science labs it is developing.

4- Winning the Award of Prince Sheikh Salem Al-Ali:

PraxiLabs ended in 2019 by winning one of the most important information technology awards in the Arab world, the award of Prince Sheikh Salem Al-Ali Al-Sabah Informatics. Dr. Khadija Elbedweihy, the founder, received the award during the ceremony held under the patronage and presence of Prince Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah, Prince of Kuwait, at Bayan Al Amer Palace.

The ceremony was also made more memorable by the presence of Her Excellency Sheikha Aida Salem Al-Ali Al-Sabah, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Award. On the day after the ceremony, she attended the introductory lecture given by Dr. Khadija Elbedweihy (CEO of PraxiLabs) on virtual science labs and their role in developing science education in practical colleges, at the award booth at the Kuwait International Book Fair.

The 2019 Most Prominent Activities that PraxiLabs Participated in:

1- Participation in a Training Workshop in Cooperation with Innovation Hub at Ain Shams University:

The Innovation Center at Ain Shams University, Innovation Hub, supports the idea of developing science education in colleges by holding practical workshops to train students in using virtual labs.

Three-dimensional simulation for DNA extraction experiment—one of the experiments of biology labs provided by PraxiLabs—was used to train students. Dr. Heba Elwi, Kasr Al-Ainy College of Medicine, explained the steps to conduct the experiment for students.

At the end of the workshop, Professor Mohamed El-Banna, Deputy Undersecretary of the Faculty of Engineering at Ain Shams University, honor the students who attended the training workshop.

2- Participating in the Activities of the 10th Annual Conference of Arab Net in Beirut:

PraxiLabs had participated in the activities of the 10th annual conference of Arab Net Foundation in Beirut, Lebanon, on June 12 and 13, 2019. His Excellency the Lebanese Prime Minister, Mr. Saad Al Hariri, and a number of ministers, in addition to a large number of speakers and persons interested in entrepreneurship and technology from several countries around the world, also attended the conference, making it truly a remarkable event.

PraxiLabs had been represented by Dr. Khadija Elbedweihy (CEO and founder), and Mr. Essam El-Saadi (Co-Founder and Director of Operations), who showed the attendees the details of the virtual science labs provided by PraxiLabs and their most important advantages.

3- Participating in the Activities of the Cairo International Innovation Fair, 6th Edition:

PraxiLabs had participated in the 6th edition of the Cairo International Innovation Fair at the Center for International Fairs and Conferences, under the patronage of Professor Khaled Abdel Ghaffar, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

This fair aims to gather all those interested in science and innovations in Egypt and stimulate scientific innovation by bringing together scientists, innovators, inventors, and businessmen in one place. It is considered a link between all those interested in innovation and science. PraxiLabs team had explained the mechanism of action and features of virtual labs to the attendees.

Features that Were Added to the Virtual Science Labs of PraxiLabs during 2019:

During this year, the development team and education experts in PraxiLabs produced more than 20 new experiments, to be added to the existing experiments in PraxiLabs Virtual Science Labs, in the fields of physics, chemistry, and biology.

Moreover, PraxiLabs also had sought to improve the user experience by reducing the time required to load experiments on the Internet. PraxiLabs team is always keen on continuous communication with educational institutions and science education experts to learn about the proposals for modernization and development and ensure that we are keeping pace with modern trends to simplify science education.

Thus, we have made a quick summary of the most prominent achievements and activities made this year, which is considered to be the golden year for PraxiLabs. And we hope that next year will bring more achievements and success to the development of educational technology.

]]>
E-learning and One of Its Applications (Virtual Labs) https://blog.praxilabs.com/2019/12/18/e-learning-and-one-of-its-applications-virtual-labs/ Wed, 18 Dec 2019 13:53:53 +0000 http://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=311 Modern teaching methods vary. And one of these methods is the simulation method, which is used by the virtual labs. Also, simulation is one of the most important teaching and training methods that help to reduce costs of the education process. It saves time and efforts as well. And through simulation, students are able to develop many personal skills, which is one of the educational goals.

On the other hand, it provides the learner with a lot of knowledge about the requirements of real work environment. Thus it achieves the second educational goal.  Dr. Ali Abd Al-Samie defined simulation as “an educational method that the teacher usually uses to bring students to the real world. It is believed that the simulation method suits the fields that do not accept any errors, as happens in some nuclear and military industries as an example.”

Educational Systems in Digital Age: 

That great progress that we are experiencing at the present time in various fields, including the field of e-education, is one of the most important features of the technological revolution that provides information network. This leads to the development of the education systems, obligating educational systems to help students to keep pace with this progress phenomenal by developing their skills and providing them with knowledge. This cannot be achieved through knowledge only. However, students must be guided to the creativity and innovation, and the way to use those modern technological methods to stimulate their ideas effectively.

E-learning Concept and Types:

The concept of e-learning has spread widely in recent years as a result of the diversity of modern means of communication. Moreover, it can be defined as learning through modern technological methods of communication, such as computers, internet, and various media, e.g., audio, pictures, and video, which can be used in classes or at home, helping to save time and effort and helping the student receive the most benefit.

E-learning is divided into two types. The first one is synchronous e-learning: it means that the student and the teacher are connected to the Internet at the same time to conduct the lesson and manage the discussion between each other directly through virtual classes or chat rooms.

The other type, which is asynchronous e-learning, does not require the presence of the student and their teacher at the same time in front of the computer screens. But the educational process takes place through recorded lessons or educational materials saved on CDs.                           

Simulation Application in E-learning Systems:

With the advent of computers in the nineties of the last century, there was increasing interest in using simulation as a form of the educational process development because of its effectiveness. This is because the forms of using simulation in education diversified as a way to reduce material losses and add an entertainment aspect to the learner while receiving their lessons. This made it an effective way in teaching some topics that cannot be dealt with in reality, due to the dangers that may result from them.

The Concept of Virtual Labs:

The virtual labs are considered as one of the most important applications of e-learning in educational and research institutions. They provide students with the opportunity to conduct experiments without exposure to any risk and without human supervision, by using computer applications in different fields of science. 

Also they save a lot of time and effort for students and teachers as well, where they can conduct experiments and anywhere and anytime. Further, the virtual laboratories provide protection for students from dealing with dangerous chemicals or electrical devices directly.

On the institutional side, they save a lot of money that will, otherwise, be wasted in the maintenance operations of devices and equipment or the purchase of materials necessary to conduct various experiments.

So, the virtual labs can be defined as a virtual environment for conducting different experiments, through which the real science lab is simulated and the practical side is linked to the theoretical side.

You can try your free virtual labs trial from PraxiLabs here

10 Features for Using Virtual Labs:

1- They help students and teachers to conduct and prepare experiments without being restricted to laboratory locations or official study dates.

2- They help the student to repeat the same experiment more than once according to their ability to understand.

3- Virtual labs help solve the problem of lack of capabilities and finance.

4- They protect students from the dangers during conducting some dangerous experiments, as they prevent them from needing to deal with toxic or radioactive chemicals as well as electrical devices.

5- Virtual labs help the teacher cover all aspects of the course with practical applications and help the student to understand all the points of the course with experience, which is difficult to provide when there is lack of equipment and funding.

6- The student is given the opportunity to control the inputs of the experiment, change the different parameters, and observe the changes in the results without human supervision and without being exposed to any risks.

7- Cooperation and interaction between students and each other and between teachers and students are provided.

8- They save a lot of money for educational institutions.

9- Virtual labs help the teacher to evaluate the students electronically, easily guide them, and monitor their progress in conducting experiments.

10- They also save time and effort on the researchers, as they prevent them from moving between different laboratories locations.

]]>
Introduction to Thermodynamics https://blog.praxilabs.com/2019/12/05/introduction-to-thermodynamics/ Thu, 05 Dec 2019 09:05:06 +0000 http://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=303 Heat is a form of energy that can be transformed from one form to another, or transferred between objects. For example, in electric motors, the turbine transforms heat into mechanical energy to power the motor, then mechanical energy is transformed into electrical energy by the engine to illuminate light bulbs. To study the relation between heat and other forms of energy, physicists established thermodynamics to understand how thermal energy is diverted into and from other forms of energy. and how these transformations affect matter. 

Thermal energy is defined as the energy possessed by a substance or system as a result of its temperature, It expresses the energy of moving or shaky particles.

Thermodynamics can thus be defined as a branch of physics that organizes the relation between heat and various forms of energy and describes the transformations that occur in thermal energy from one state to another state of energy and how this transformation affects matter.

History of Thermodynamics:

The Caloric theory was proposed by chemist Antoine Lavoisier in 1783 and supported by Sadi Carnot in 1824, scientists adhered to this theory in their research during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, according to the American Physical Society.

Rudolf Clausius

Thermal theory considered heat as a type of fluid flowing naturally from hot objects to cold objects in a way that resembled the flow of water from high altitudes to low zones. This fluid becomes mechanical energy when heat flows from the hot area to the cold as the fluid flows. This theory remained in use until the German physicist Rudolf Clausius came and published the theory of heat in 1879 to deny the Caloric theory.

PraxiLabs provides some of the thermodynamics experiments with its 3D virtual labs, You can try your free virtual labs here.

Heat:

There are many physical properties of materials, but the heat is one of the most important properties that we can study using thermodynamics. Heat is defined as energy that moves between materials due to temperature differences between those substances, according to energy laws. And as one form of energy, heat is subject to energy conservation laws. Heat cannot be annihilated or created from scratch, but it can be transformed from one form to another form of energy or passed from place to place. For example, the burner (electric) torch converts electrical energy to heat energy, and connects that energy through the pot to water, which in turn supplies water molecules with more mechanical energy, which accelerates the movement of the water molecules until it reaches its temperature to the boiling temperature, at that time, the atoms will gain enough energy to release them from the molecular bonds of the liquid, and come out in the form of vapor.

Temperature:

A unit of measurement of the thermal energy rate of a particle in a matter, expressed in units or degrees determined by a fixed standard scale.

The most commonly used temperature scale is the Celsius scale, according to the American Heritage Dictionary. The Celsius unit relies on freezing and boiling points of water under atmospheric pressure. The freezing point of water is zero degrees Celsius and the boiling point is 100 Celsius. The Fahrenheit unit can also be used to express the temperature, and such as Celsius, Fahrenheit also depends on the freezing and boiling points of water. The freezing point of water is 32 ° F and the boiling point is 212 ° F.

The third unit, Kelvin, has been adopted due to its accuracy achieved during its use in calculations. In addition to that, it is possible to use the same rate of increase found in the Celsius scale, which means that the degree Celsius is equal to 1 Kelvin.

Specific heat:

Specific heat is one of the physical properties of the material and is defined as the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. It can also be expressed as (joules/kg. Kelvin). 

The four laws of thermodynamics:

The basic principle of thermodynamics has been described by three fundamental laws. But then, physicists realized that the most important laws of thermodynamics were neglected, mostly because there was no explicit need to admit  it as it was self-evident. But to familiarize with all the rules of thermodynamics, scientists added it to the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. This law was called Zeroth law, which was a suggestion from the British scientist Ralph Fowler to solve the problem faced by scientists regarding the adoption of this law where the three laws had spread and known among physicists with its three numbers and changing those numbers, of course, will cause great inconvenience in the scientific community, so the new law was therefore given the name “Law zero” or “Principle zero”.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics – If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

First law of thermodynamics – Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. In any process, the total energy of the universe remains the same. For a thermodynamic cycle the net heat supplied to the system equals the net work done by the system.

Second law of thermodynamics – The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.

Ancient and contemporary scientists have always had ideas of the possibility of making perpetual motion machines that work without stopping and without any external energy source, which is directly contrary to the laws of thermodynamics. The following video illustrates the idea of perpetual machinery

 

Third law of thermodynamics – As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum.

We have thus addressed some information about the fundamentals of thermodynamics, which is a very important branch of physics.

]]>
Artificial Intelligence: Its Concept, History, and Most Important Application in Education https://blog.praxilabs.com/2019/11/03/artificial-intelligence-its-concept-history-and-most-important-application-in-education/ Sun, 03 Nov 2019 17:12:19 +0000 http://blog.praxilabs.com/?p=296 “Machines that can talk and think,” this is how science fiction movies present the idea of ​​artificial intelligence (AI). Now we can see artificial intelligence invading various aspects of life.

It is the first concern of all companies in various industries, where the most important advantage of artificial intelligence for entrepreneurs is to reduce relying on human potential. Thus, they are able to save time and effort by developing machines capable of operating automatically without human intervention, where saving effort and time in the business world leads to saving money, the primary goal of every entrepreneur. 

The emergence of artificial intelligence as a term began by philosophers of science in 1956. And many believe that philosophy played a key role in the development and growth of artificial intelligence technology. According to David Deutsch, a physicist at Oxford, philosophy still holds the key to achieving general artificial intelligence (AGI), which is the level of machine intelligence that is comparable to that of the human brain, despite the fact that “there is no brain on earth yet, close to Find out what our brains do to achieve any of their functions.”

The uses of artificial intelligence range from security systems, military uses, and medicine to self-driving cars, energy-saving, positioning systems, etc. In this article, we will discuss one of those applications, which is its application in education.

What is AI?

Artificial intelligence can be defined as modern technology used to allow machines and computer programs to simulate human intelligence and provide them with the ability to learn. Artificial intelligence is mainly based on the learning side and that is one of the most important benefits of these technologies, saving a lot of time and effort for humans.

Artificial intelligence needs very high specialists and techniques. And there are a lot of problems that programmers are trying to solve by AI, including computer programming for features such as learning, planning, problem-solving, and the ability to move objects.

According to a recent Hubspot survey of 1,400 consumers around the world, the results showed that 63% of them do not already realize that they use artificial intelligence techniques on a daily basis in their lives.

History of Artificial Intelligence

In the middle of the twentieth century, some scientists tried to develop new ways to build machines with intelligence and learning ability based on their recent findings in neuroscience, a new mathematical theory of information, and the development of cybernetics. Moreover, using digital computer, they were able to invent a machine that could mimic human computational thinking.

By 1956, a conference was held on the campus of Dartmouth College, where intelligence research was established. The attendees of this conference were the pioneers of AI research. One of the most distinguished of them was Herbert Simon, who founded artificial intelligence laboratories at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), and Stanford. They and their pupils began to write programs that enabled the computer to solve problems in algebra, prove logical theories, and speak English, which surprised and attracted the attention of the scientific community at the time.

By the early 1980s, AI research had leapfrogged through the commercial success of “expert systems.” Expert systems are one of the artificial intelligence programs that can simulate the analytical knowledge and skills of one or more human experts.

In the 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century, AI research was able to invade many fields such as logistics, data mining, medical diagnostics, and many different fields in various types of technological industries. And among the most important factors of this success were the great power of computers, the increased focus on solving specific sub-problems, and the creation of new relationships between the field of artificial intelligence and other areas of work in similar problems. Researchers began to adhere to strong mathematical approaches and rigorous scientific standards.

Artificial Intelligence in Education

Modern technologies are currently invading the field of education extensively from the use of augmented reality and virtual reality techniques in explaining the educational curricula, especially conducting laboratory experiments such as PraxiLabs virtual laboratories, which contain virtual laboratories to conduct experiments of physics, chemistry, and biology, to the technology of artificial intelligence which we will address one of its most important techniques in education at present.

You can try your free virtual labs trial from PraxiLabs here.

Personalized Learning

Unlike the traditional education system, which is based on the principle of equality in education, where everyone attends the same subject, listens to the same lecture, and takes the same standardized tests, regardless of their understanding or applying concepts in the future, researchers seek to develop artificial intelligence systems that collect each student’s data based on the type of material that suits their understanding and increases their learning ability, including providing appropriate curricula for each individual student as well as examinations for assessment.

What “Squirrel AI” has done with a Chinese student, Zhou Yi, is a successful example of what personalized learning technique might offer students. Zhou was terrible at math. He risked never getting into college. Instead of a human teacher, researchers at “Squirrel AI” developed an artificial intelligence algorithm to shape his lessons. Within two years, Zhou’s test scores rose from 50% to 85%.

However, it is worth mentioning that there are some concerns and challenges such as the problem of equality, and it may occur in cases where the personalized teacher will be an impediment to some and may damage the credibility of these systems.

]]>