It is not easy to develop a precise definition of physics, as it’s concept is constantly changing with the advent of new discoveries and the conclusions of scientific experiments. However, physics is one of the basic sciences that we use everyday.
Physics is not limited to studying the universe and understanding its origin. It is the basis of science and is applied daily in our lives. With it, we can study material and energy. The origin of the word physics comes from the Greek language, the original word meaning ‘the understanding of nature.’ Physics is based on scientific experiments and the conclusion of the laws and their confirmation to explain the natural phenomena around us.
In this article, we will learn about some physics experiments and laws that have been derived from these experiments and their most important applications in our daily lives.
The Archimedes Experiment
Archimedes is a physicist, mathematician, astronomer and Greek engineer born in Sarsuca, Sicily, in 287 BC. He conducted scientific experiments in various fields and designed many of the siege weapons used by Greek armies. He also designed the screw pump, a water-pumping machine used in ancient farming and irrigation.
The experiment aims at determining the specific density of a solid or liquid body, based on the Archimedes’ principle. It is one of the most important rules of fluid mechanics. This principle states that “the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid.”
This principle has many applications in our lives, especially in marine applications such as the floating of ships and submarine diving, in addition to hot air balloons.
It also has applications in the measurement of irregular objects such as crowns. The principle can also be applied to numerous other fields.
Linear Thermal Expansion of Solids
The purpose of the experiment is to determine the linear expansion coefficient of a metal rod based on the phenomenon of thermal expansion.
It is known that most objects expand when their temperature increases. The amount of expansion due to heating depends on the amount of cohesion between the molecules of the material.
As a result, the solids expand by a very small amount during heating due to the great strength of the cohesion between their molecules. In liquids, the amount of expansion is greater than the expansion of solids. In gases, the expansion is much higher than it is in liquids.
This phenomenon has a great importance in many engineering applications. For example, taking into account the amount of heat expansion when constructing buildings, bridges, and railways, sufficient distances must be left between the steel joints to allow for expansion and contraction. If not, the building will crash or bridges and the railways will collapse due to the thermal expansion of its material.
Free Fall Experiment
The aim of the experiment is to measure the gravitational acceleration based on the phenomenon of free fall.
Free fall is the phenomenon of the fall of objects resulting from the force of Earth’s gravity. The term “free fall” refers to the movement of all objects as a result of the impact of the force of gravity only.
The movement of satellites and space stations around Earth is one of the most important applications of the phenomenon of free fall. These satellites are in a state of permanent free fall, which helps maintain their speed.